it is running, but the browser has some settings that disallow it to access localhost
Really? How does that happen? Are you using a computer that has certain settings restricted beyond your control? Every browser that I've ever used can connect to localhost / 127.0.0.1 - with the possible exceptions of Internet Explorer and Safari, but given that they don't run on Linux I haven't used them for aeons.
I'm just wondering whether it is possible to log client information to the server sql database if I use "file:///"
Otherwise, you'll be prone to finding that certain things don't work exactly as you expected when your work is set to go live.