If you want your page to rank high, then you want to convince Google that your page is highly relevant for that search phrase, your page & your website are popular and your page is high quality.
More relevant = higher rankings
More popular = higher rankings
Maintaining high quality usually = high rankings
Google claims to take over 200 factors into consideration when determining their rankings. This may very well be true. However, we know from experience that certain things matter more than others. There are a handful of things you can really focus on that will make huge differences in the way your page ranks. The other factors are less important in the grand scheme of things.