Well, you could build a CMS like Drupal by using Laravel, but I personally wouldn't want to try to build a framework like Laravel using Drupal -- though I suppose technically it's possible, since both are written in PHP, and therefore presumably you could so a lot of under-the-hood hacking of Drupal until you turned it into something like Laravel. Laravel is a layer or two closer to the actual machine code than Drupal or other CMS's are, and therefore is a more foundational tool. If a higher level tool like Drupal fits your needs, it's probably more efficient to use it for those needs (assuming you're reasonably fluent in either).
Ultimately, though, it depends on what you want to do, and what tools you are comfortable with. If you want to create a blog, you can use WordPress and pretty much be ready to go right out of the box. If you want something blog-like, but with other features, you could still use WordPress and hopefully find some plug-ins that do the additional things you need. If you want to do create something that isn't really a blog, and does a bunch of new types of things specific to your business needs, rather than trying to make lots of modifications to WordPress until you finally get that square peg to fit your round hole, it may make more sense to build it from scratch on top of Laravel.
The same would hold true for Drupal: there are types of sites it's ideal for, there are types of sites it can probably be customized to handle reasonably well, and there are types of sites you'd be better off building from the ground up yourself. For example, I wouldn't try to build Facebook in Drupal, even though maybe I could eventually get it to provide all the functionality -- likely not performing very well, though.