ASP is not a language either. ASP and ASP.NET are both processes. ASP is the older legacy technology, while ASP.NET is the modern, fully OO, and basically completely superior technology. Both technologies can be used with a number of languages.
Yes you would learn how to use asp.net with the language of your choice which could be c#, vb.net, or even one of the more obscure but also just as powerful languages (j#, c++.net, so on and so fourth).